Applied Sciences

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resources on your own before you bid. Main references come from Murray, C., Pope, A., & Willis, B. (2017) and/or American Psychological Association (2014). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my and example by the professor on how to respond to get full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. I need this completed by 02/29/2020 at 8pm.

Expectation:

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Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note, that although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.

Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (H. Tra)

Discussion (Week 1): Ethical Implications of Historical Trends

Historical Change

In today’s Western world there is hardly anywhere you can go where sex is not a topic of discussion. With popular books and movies such as Fifty Shades of Grey and Magic Mike XXL, it is clear that our society is interested in sex. This places counselor educators in the position to prepare budding counselors to discuss sexual topics in session. For example, after substance abuse, sexual concerns are among the most common problems reported among women to health professionals (Crowell, Mosley, & Stevens-Watkins, 2017). Many Americans have sexual dysfunction or behavioral concerns and are seeking assistance from mental health clinicians. Unfortunately, there is limited curriculum on sexuality counseling and sexual behavior in clinical mental health counselor education programs (Crowell, Mosley, & Stevens-Watkins, 2017). This lack of education and discussion can result in counselor bias and lack of self-efficacy in therapeutic sessions. Researchers have found that medical assistance alone does not offer effective results when discussing sexual dysfunction or non-normative sexual behavior (Crowell, Mosley, & Stevens-Watkins, 2017). Sexual dysfunction is not the only sexual concern that could present itself in session. People who participate in various sexual behaviors could already be in counseling for other concerns, or clients could be experiencing anxiety about engaging in new, non-normative sexual activities.

Ethical Implications

Counselors are expected to have a basic knowledge of sexuality and sexuality counseling interventions. Examples for counselors to understand sexuality are exploring the various dimensions of sexuality, increasing self-awareness regarding sexual biases, values and beliefs, increasing comfort with addressing sexuality with clients, becoming more proficient in the assessment and diagnosis of sexual problems, and increasing knowledge of healthy sexual development. Although sexuality counseling does require specialized interventions, counselors need to increase their competency in meeting the needs of their clients. As counselors enter the counseling relationship, they also bring their own subjective experiences of sexuality, much of which they may not be aware of until and unless sexuality becomes the focus of the counseling process.

It is also important for counselors to become self-aware and to not impose their values, beliefs, and worldviews on clients that are discussing about their sexuality. Lack of awareness can lead to counselors responding in a manner that is not therapeutic for clients, such as changing the subject, minimizing the client’s concern, or providing inaccurate or biased information. On the other hand, increased self-awareness regarding sexuality equips counselors to manage their own emotional responses and maintain objectivity. According to the American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists (AASECT, 2008), “The certified member shall be aware of and monitor the fact that his/her personal needs may influence judgments and actions in the therapeutic relationship and shall, regardless of experience or training, have a qualified review source such as a supervisor available to assist in safeguarding against unwise or inappropriate judgments and acts.”

References

American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists. (2008). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aasect.org/code-ethics

Crowell, C., Mosley, D. V., & Stevens-Watkins, D. (2017). Studying Sex: A Content Analysis of Sexuality Research in Counseling Psychology. The Counseling psychologist, 45(4), 528–546. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000017713756

2. Classmate (C. Als)

Historical Perspective

The historical perspective regarding sex and sexuality is the limited curriculum on sexuality counseling and sexual behavior in clinical mental health education programs. For example, the lack of education and discussion can result in counselor bias and lack of self-efficacy in a therapeutic session. Per study it has been found that medical assistance alone does not offer the effective results when discussing sexual dysfunction or non-normative sexual behavior. Therefore, individuals at times will engage in various counseling intervention alongside sexuality counseling found to reduce the sexual dysfunction comorbid symptoms one maybe experiencing that can often lead to anxiety or depression (Walz & Bleuer, 2017).

Ethical Implications

The ethical implications for the practice of sexuality counseling can lead to the counselor to be compelled to evaluate their ideas, attitudes and own values including those related. This can lead to the counselor being bias towards their counselor with diagnosing different ethnicity groups for the same issue with diagnoses. For example, a mental health clinician can diagnose and African American with sexual dysfunctions with psychotic disorders when they report their experiences or encounters compared to when they diagnose a European White with a mood disorder that would be bias of the counselor based on ethical backgrounds of their clients which could lead to ethical implication towards malpractice for not being honest or factual based on a person’s race (Walz & Bleuer, 2017)

References to the ASSECT

Working with issue’s surrounding sexuality requires some form of personal bias and stereotypes, management of transference and countertransference that evolves around the sexual topic. Per ASSECT and The American Association (APA) of Sexuality Educators and Counselors, have their own Code of Ethics which explores the terms of divulgence of secrets in marital therapy. Therapist need to always ensure they are prepared to handle certain disclosure in order to prevent harm, when one partner is involved in another relationship without the consent of the other. This would be in reference to the Ethical Management of Sex Therapy Casework (Buehler, 2016).

The Sexual Health Alliance (SHA) is a sex therapy certification program that offers community, support, guidance, structure and education all within a unique platform and groups. This therapy is a ASSECT Certified Sex Therapy Educator that are utilized to educate mental health professions who are trained to provide in depth psychotherapy that extend over a period of time in dealing with a more complex sexual dysfunction therapy over a period of time.  This reference the ASSECT Certification for sexual therapy program (SHA, 2019).

Reference

American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists. (2008). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aasect.org/code-ethics

Buehler, S (2016) Ethical Management of Sex Therapy Casework: What Every Mental Health Professional Needs to Know About Sex, 2nd Edition Retrieved from https://connect.springerpub.com/highwire_display/entity_view/node/54864/content_details

Sexual Health Alliance SHA (2019) Sex Therapy Certification Educator and Counselor Retrieved from https://sexualhealthalliance.com/aasect-sex-therapy-certification

Walz, G., R., & Bleuer, J., C., (2017) Vistas Online: Integration of Sex and Sexuality into Counseling Program Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/vistas/integration_of_sex_and_sexuality.pdf?sfvrsn=4

3. Classmate (A. Joh)

Transgender Identity and Media in Historical Perspective

Sexuality is undoubtedly impacted by how people view their gender and sexual orientation. Gender identity encompasses not only whether one views him- or herself to be male, female, and/or transgender but also the meanings the person ascribes to that gender role (Juergens, Smedema, & Berven, 2009). Therefore, counselors can make no assumptions about what it means for someone to be a woman, man, or transgender person in society today.

Perspectives on human sexuality within the mental health professions have shifted significantly over time. Some of the earliest views on sexuality were proposed by Freud, who viewed sexual feelings as reflective of internal psychological conflicts (Goodwach, 2005a; Southern & Cade, 2011). However, sexuality remained relatively under-studied until Alfred Kinsey began his high-profile research in the 1940s and 1950s (Goodwach, 2005a; Southern & Cade, 2011), which challenged many predominant norms about sexuality and especially female sexuality.

AASECT in the strongest possible terms reaffirms its commitment to the dignity and rights of all transgender, gender nonbinary, and gender nonconforming people

“The new definition would essentially eradicate federal recognition of the estimated 1.4 million Americans who have opted to recognize themselves – surgically or otherwise – as a gender other than the one they were born into.”

The notion that anyone should be denied civil rights on the basis of gender identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation is abhorrent and runs counter to basic human dignity. We believe the above position to be legally untenable, scientifically inaccurate, and morally reprehensible. Should the position outlined in the administration’s memo be enacted, overwhelming scientific data clearly indicate it will lead to harm and the death of many.

Recognizing the many threats posed by such policies, AASECT joins with numerous other organizations to stand against the current administration and in solidarity with transgender, gender nonbinary, and gender nonconforming individuals.

While, Masters’ and Johnson’s work during the 1950’s has received praise for their noteworthy and trail-blazing contributions to the field of sexual science (and certainly that praise is well-deserved), recent research has identified problems with their original model. Basson (2005) has proposed that this model may be problematic when we consider female sexuality because the female sexual response cycle may be quite different than the male sexual response cycle.

The Ethics of Sexual Relationships and Client Vulnerability

Counselors must be proactive in creating a counseling environment in which clients can feel safe and supported in discussing some of their most personal thoughts, feelings, and experiences. In addition to working to build a strong rapport with clients, three fundamental ethical principles can guide counselors in creating this supportive environment. First, it is important for counselors to maintain professional boundaries at all times when engaging in sexuality counseling (American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists, 2004; Principle 3.4). A clear professional boundary can help assure the client that the counselor is competent and prepared to address the client’s sexuality concerns in an ethical and professional manner. Second, sexuality counselors must avoid imposing their values on their clients (American Counseling Association, 2014, A.4.b). Sex is an extremely value-laden issue. Because counselors have a powerful position with regard to their level of influence on their clients, they must be extremely careful to ensure that they do not use this privileged position to sway clients toward their own personal value systems. Third, counselors should respect clients’ autonomy for their own lives and decisions.

As a helping professional and dealing with clients of all ethnicities and genders I welcome the changes I see in the media towards people of differing backgrounds. I have been in situations with clients who have gender identity issues and they professed their attraction towards me. The fiduciary relationship with my client is more important than the client’s needs.

The national boundaries set by each state for client interaction have been in place to protect the client and the helping professional. I have personally known of inappropriate counselor/client relationships and have had to report on a few. Clients have a tendency to cling to a therapist as a life saver. And therapist must be aware of transference.

I was aware of ta therapist who had sexual relations with a client in her office. I also knew a therapist who was impregnated by a client. One thing the helping must always remember is the fiduciary  relationship. We are helping professionals who must be aware of that fact at all times that we can do more harm than good.

Bilbrey, Melanie L., “Transgender Identity and Media in Historical Perspective” (2015). Honors Theses. Paper 382

American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists. (2008). Code of

ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aasect.org/code-ethics

Required Resources

  • Course Text: Murray,      C., Pope, A., & Willis, B. (2017). Sexuality counseling:      Theory, research, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
    • Chapter 1, “Addressing Sexuality in Professional       Counseling”
  • Article: American      Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists.      (2008). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aasect.org/code-ethics
  • Article: American      Counseling Association. (ACA). (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved      from http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4
  • Article: Berry,      M. D., & Lezos, A. N. (2017). Inclusive sex therapy practices: A      qualitative study of the techniques sex therapists use when working with      diverse sexual populations. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 32(1),      2–21. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Article: Southern,      S., & Cade, R. (2011). Sexuality counseling: A professional      specialization comes of age. The Family Journal, 19(3),      246–262. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the SAGE database.

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